Johannes Itten was a Swiss painter, designer and teacher born in 1888 – 1967. Itten was one of the first people to identify strategies for successful colour combinations resulting in striking colours and contrast. His teaching explained seven methods for coordinating colours utilizing hue’s contrasting properties.
1. Contrast of saturation – this is the contrast between luminous and dull colours.
2. Contrast of light and dark – is the difference in brightness and tone values of colours, which can be lightened with white and darkened with black.
3. Contrast of extension – is based on the relative areas of two or more colours, such as large and small.
4. A complementary contrast – exist when two complementary colours are placed side by side.
5. Simultaneous contrast – is when the opposite colours are placed side by side creating the illusion of vibration or shadows.
6. Contrast of hue – is when pure colours are used in random combinations, which can be further enhanced with black and white.
7. Contrast of warm and cool – is created when warm colours (red, orange, yellow and brown) are place together to evoke a feeling or warmth and comfort. Alternatively cool colours (green, blue, gray) will educe feeling of sadness